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PREMARIN® VAGINAL CREAM Clinical Studies (conjugated estrogens)

14 CLINICAL STUDIES

14.1 Effects on Vulvar and Vaginal Atrophy

A 12-week, prospective, randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study was conducted to compare the safety and efficacy of 2 PREMARIN Vaginal Cream (PVC) regimens 0.5 g (0.3 mg CE) administered twice weekly and 0.5 g (0.3 mg CE) administered sequentially for 21 days on drug followed by 7 days off drug to matching placebo regimens in the treatment of moderate to severe symptoms of vulvar and vaginal atrophy due to menopause. The initial 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase was followed by an open-label phase to assess endometrial safety through week 52. The study randomized 423 generally healthy postmenopausal women between 44 to 77 years of age (mean 57.8 years), who at baseline had ≤ 5 percent superficial cells on a vaginal smear, a vaginal pH ≥ 5.0, and who identified a most bothersome moderate to severe symptom of vulvar and vaginal atrophy. The majority (92.2 percent) of the women were Caucasian (n = 390); 7.8 percent were Other (n = 33). All subjects were assessed for improvement in the mean change from baseline to Week 12 for the co-primary efficacy variables of: most bothersome symptom of vulvar and vaginal atrophy (defined as the moderate to severe symptom that had been identified by the woman as most bothersome to her at baseline); percentage of vaginal superficial cells and percentage of vaginal parabasal cells; and vaginal pH.

In the 12-week, double-blind phase, a statistically significant mean change between baseline and Week 12 in the symptom of dyspareunia was observed for both of the PREMARIN Vaginal Cream regimens (0.5 g daily for 21 days, then 7 days off and 0.5 g twice weekly) compared to matching placebo, see Table 3. Also demonstrated for each PREMARIN Vaginal Cream regimen compared to placebo was a statistically significant increase in the percentage of superficial cells at Week 12 (28 percent, 21/7 regimen and 26 percent, twice a week compared to 3 percent and 1 percent for matching placebo), a statistically significant decrease in parabasal cells (-61 percent, 21/7 regimen and -58 percent, twice a week compared to -21 percent and -7 percent for matching placebo) and statistically significant mean reduction between baseline and Week 12 in vaginal pH (-1.62, 21/7 regimen and -1.57, twice a week compared to -0.36 and -0.26 for matching placebo).

Endometrial safety was assessed by endometrial biopsy for all randomly assigned subjects at week 52. For the 155 subjects (83 on the 21/7 regimen, 72 on the twice-weekly regimen) completing the 52-week period with complete follow-up and evaluable endometrial biopsies, there were no reports of endometrial hyperplasia or endometrial carcinoma.

Table 3: Mean Change in Dyspareunia Severity Compared to Placebo MITT Population of Most Bothersome Symptom Score for Dyspareunia, LOCF
DyspareuniaPVC
0.5 g
21/7*
Placebo
0.5 g
21/7*
PVC
0.5 g
2×/wk
Placebo
0.5 g
2×/wk
*
PVC 21/7 = apply PVC for 21 days and then 7 days of no therapy
PVC 2×/wk = apply PVC twice a week
Comparison of PVC 21/7 with placebo 21/7
§
Comparison of PVC 2×/wk with placebo 2×/wk
Baselinen
Mean (SD)
50
2.26 (0.99)
n
Mean (SD)
18
2.32 (0.88)
n
Mean (SD)
52
2.43 (0.76)
n
Mean (SD)
22
2.28 (1.04)
Week 1250
0.77 (1.05)
18
1.93 (1.03)
52
0.88 (0.96)
21
1.63 (1.16)
Change from
Baseline at Week 12
50
-1.48 (1.17)
18
-0.40 (1.01)
52
-1.55 (0.92)
21
-0.62 (1.23)
  P-value
  vs.
  Placebo
<0.001 --<0.001 §--

14.2 Women's Health Initiative Studies

The WHI enrolled approximately 27,000 predominantly healthy postmenopausal women in two substudies to assess the risks and benefits of daily oral CE (0.625 mg)-alone or in combination with MPA (2.5 mg) compared to placebo in the prevention of certain chronic diseases. The primary endpoint was the incidence of CHD (defined as nonfatal MI, silent MI and CHD death), with invasive breast cancer as the primary adverse outcome. A "global index" included the earliest occurrence of CHD, invasive breast cancer, stroke, PE, endometrial cancer (only in the CE plus MPA substudy), colorectal cancer, hip fracture, or death due to other causes. These substudies did not evaluate the effects of CE-alone or CE plus MPA on menopausal symptoms.

WHI Estrogen-Alone Substudy

The WHI estrogen-alone substudy was stopped early because an increased risk of stroke was observed, and it was deemed that no further information would be obtained regarding the risks and benefits of estrogen--alone in predetermined primary endpoints.

Results of the estrogen-alone substudy, which included 10,739 women (average 63 years of age, range 50 to 79; 75.3 percent White, 15.1 percent Black, 6.1 percent Hispanic, 3.6 percent Other) after an average follow-up of 7.1 years, are presented in Table 4.

Table 4: Relative and Absolute Risk Seen in the Estrogen-Alone Substudy of WHI*
EventRelative Risk
CE vs. Placebo
(95% nCI)
CE
n = 5,310
Placebo
n = 5,429
Absolute Risk per 10,000 Women-Years
*
Adapted from numerous WHI publications. WHI publications can be viewed at www.nhlbi.nih.gov/whi.
Nominal confidence intervals unadjusted for multiple looks and multiple comparisons.
Results are based on centrally adjudicated data for an average follow-up of 7.1 years.
§
Not included in "global index."
Results are based on an average follow-up of 6.8 years.
#
All deaths, except from breast or colorectal cancer, definite or probable CHD, PE or cerebrovascular disease.
Þ
A subset of the events was combined in a “global index” defined as the earliest occurrence of CHD events, invasive breast cancer, stroke, pulmonary embolism, colorectal cancer, hip fracture, or death due to other causes.
CHD events0.95 (0.78–1.16)5457
  Non-fatal MI0.91 (0.73–1.14)4043
  CHD death1.01 (0.71–1.43)1616
All Strokes1.33 (1.05–1.68)4533
  Ischemic stroke1.55 (1.19–2.01)3825
Deep vein thrombosis,§1.47 (1.06–2.06)2315
Pulmonary embolism1.37 (0.90–2.07)1410
Invasive breast cancer0.80 (0.62–1.04)2834
Colorectal cancer1.08 (0.75–1.55)1716
Hip fracture0.65 (0.45–0.94)1219
Vertebral fractures,§0.64 (0.44–0.93)1118
Lower arm/wrist fractures,§0.58 (0.47–0.72)3559
Total fractures,§0.71 (0.64–0.80)144197
Death due to other causes,#1.08 (0.88–1.32)5350
Overall mortality,§1.04 (0.88–1.22)7975
Global IndexÞ1.02 (0.92–1.13)206201

For those outcomes included in the WHI "global index" that reached statistical significance, the absolute excess risk per 10,000 women-years in the group treated with CE-alone was 12 more strokes while the absolute risk reduction per 10,000 women-years was 7 fewer hip fractures.9 The absolute excess risk of events included in the "global index" was a non-significant 5 events per 10,000 women-years. There was no difference between the groups in terms of all-cause mortality.

No overall difference for primary CHD events (nonfatal MI, silent MI and CHD death) and invasive breast cancer incidence in women receiving CE-alone compared with placebo was reported in final centrally adjudicated results from the estrogen-alone substudy, after an average follow up of 7.1 years.

Centrally adjudicated results for stroke events from the estrogen-alone substudy, after an average follow-up of 7.1 years, reported no significant difference in distribution of stroke subtype or severity, including fatal strokes, in women receiving CE-alone compared to placebo. Estrogen-alone increased the risk for ischemic stroke, and this excess risk was present in all subgroups of women examined.10

Timing of the initiation of estrogen-alone therapy relative to the start of menopause may affect the overall risk benefit profile. The WHI estrogen-alone substudy, stratified by age, showed in women 50 to 59 years of age a non-significant trend toward reduced risk for CHD [hazard ratio (HR) 0.63 (95 percent CI, 0.36–1.09)] and overall mortality [HR 0.71 (95 percent CI, 0.46–1.11)].

WHI Estrogen Plus Progestin Substudy

The WHI estrogen plus progestin substudy was stopped early. According to the predefined stopping rule, after an average follow-up of 5.6 years of treatment, the increased risk of invasive breast cancer and cardiovascular events exceeded the specified benefits included in the "global index." The absolute excess risk of events included in the "global index" was 19 per 10,000 women-years.

For those outcomes included in the WHI "global index" that reached statistical significance after 5.6 years of follow-up, the absolute excess risks per 10,000 women-years in the group treated with CE plus MPA were 7 more CHD events, 8 more strokes, 10 more PEs, and 8 more invasive breast cancers, while the absolute risk reductions per 10,000 women-years were 6 fewer colorectal cancers and 5 fewer hip fractures.

Results of the CE plus MPA substudy, which included 16,608 women (average 63 years of age, range 50 to 79; 83.9 percent White, 6.8 percent Black, 5.4 percent Hispanic, 3.9 percent Other) are presented in Table 5. These results reflect centrally adjudicated data after an average follow-up of 5.6 years.

Table 5: Relative and Absolute Risk Seen in the Estrogen Plus Progestin Substudy of WHI at an Average of 5.6 Years*,
EventRelative Risk
CE/MPA vs. Placebo
(95% nCI)
CE/MPA
n = 8,506
Placebo
n = 8,102
Absolute Risk per 10,000 Women-Years
*
Adapted from numerous WHI publications. WHI publications can be viewed at www.nhlbi.nih.gov/whi.
Results are based on centrally adjudicated data.
Nominal confidence intervals unadjusted for multiple looks and multiple comparisons.
§
Not included in "global index."
Includes metastatic and non-metastatic breast cancer, with the exception of in situ cancer.
#
All deaths, except from breast or colorectal cancer, definite or probable CHD, PE or cerebrovascular disease.
Þ
A subset of the events was combined in a "global index" defined as the earliest occurrence of CHD events, invasive breast cancer, stroke, pulmonary embolism, colorectal cancer, hip fracture, or death due to other causes.
CHD events1.23 (0.99–1.53)4134
  Non-fatal MI1.28 (1.00–1.63)3125
  CHD death1.10 (0.70–1.75)88
All Strokes1.31 (1.03–1.68)3325
  Ischemic stroke1.44 (1.09–1.90)2618
Deep vein thrombosis§1.95 (1.43–2.67)2613
Pulmonary embolism2.13 (1.45–3.11)188
Invasive breast cancer1.24 (1.01–1.54)4133
Colorectal cancer0.61 (0.42–0.87)1016
Endometrial cancer§0.81 (0.48–1.36)67
Cervical cancer§1.44 (0.47–4.42)21
Hip fracture0.67 (0.47–0.96)1116
Vertebral fractures§0.65 (0.46–0.92)1117
Lower arm/wrist fractures§0.71 (0.59–0.85)4462
Total fractures§0.76 (0.69–0.83)152199
Overall Mortality#1.00 (0.83–1.19)5252
Global IndexÞ1.13 (1.02–1.25)184165

Timing of the initiation of estrogen plus progestin therapy relative to the start of menopause may affect the overall risk benefit profile. The WHI estrogen plus progestin substudy stratified by age showed in women 50 to 59 years of age, a non-significant trend toward reduced risk for overall mortality [HR 0.69 (95 percent CI, 0.44–1.07)].

14.3 Women's Health Initiative Memory Study

The WHIMS estrogen-alone ancillary study of WHI enrolled 2,947 predominantly healthy hysterectomized postmenopausal women 65 to 79 years of age and older (45 percent were 65 to 69 years of age; 36 percent were 70 to 74 years of age; 19 percent were 75 years of age and older) to evaluate the effects of daily CE (0.625 mg) -alone on the incidence of probable dementia (primary outcome) compared to placebo.

After an average follow-up of 5.2 years, the relative risk of probable dementia for CE-alone versus placebo was 1.49 (95 percent CI, 0.83–2.66). The absolute risk of probable dementia for CE-alone versus placebo was 37 versus 25 cases per 10,000 women-years. Probable dementia as defined in this study included Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular dementia (VaD) and mixed types (having features of both AD and VaD). The most common classification of probable dementia in the treatment group and the placebo group was AD. Since the ancillary study was conducted in women 65 to 79 years of age, it is unknown whether these findings apply to younger postmenopausal women [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4), and Use in Specific Populations (8.5)].

The WHIMS estrogen plus progestin ancillary study of WHI enrolled 4,532 predominantly healthy postmenopausal women 65 years of age and older (47 percent were 65 to 69 years of age; 35 percent were 70 to 74 years; 18 percent were 75 years of age and older) to evaluate the effects of daily CE (0.625 mg) plus MPA (2.5 mg) on the incidence of probable dementia (primary outcome) compared to placebo.

After an average follow-up of 4 years, the relative risk of probable dementia for CE plus MPA versus placebo was 2.05 (95 percent CI, 1.21–3.48). The absolute risk of probable dementia for CE plus MPA versus placebo was 45 versus 22 per 10,000 women-years. Probable dementia as defined in this study included AD, VaD and mixed types (having features of both AD and VaD). The most common classification of probable dementia in the treatment group and the placebo group was AD. Since the ancillary study was conducted in women 65 to 79 years of age, it is unknown whether these findings apply to younger postmenopausal women [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4), and Use in Specific Populations (8.5)].

When data from the two populations were pooled as planned in the WHIMS protocol, the reported overall relative risk for probable dementia was 1.76 (95 percent CI, 1.19–2.60). Differences between groups became apparent in the first year of treatment. It is unknown whether these findings apply to younger postmenopausal women [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4), and Use in Specific Populations (8.5)].

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