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HALCION®, CIV Clinical Pharmacology (triazolam)

12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

12.1 Mechanism of Action

Triazolam is a benzodiazepine. Triazolam exerts its effect for the short-term treatment of insomnia through binding to the benzodiazepine site of the gamma-aminobutyric acid-A (GABAA) receptors in the brain and enhances GABA-mediated synaptic inhibition.

12.3 Pharmacokinetics

Absorption

Peak plasma levels of triazolam are reached within 2 hours following oral administration. Following recommended doses of Halcion, triazolam peak plasma levels in the range of 1 to 6 ng/mL are seen. The plasma levels achieved are proportional to the dose given. In normal subjects treated for 7 days with four times the recommended dosage, there was no evidence of altered systemic bioavailability, rate of elimination, or accumulation.

Distribution

Extremely high concentrations of triazolam do not displace bilirubin bound to human serum albumin in vitro.

Elimination

Triazolam has a mean plasma elimination half-life in the range of 1.5 to 5.5 hours.

Metabolism

The initial step in triazolam metabolism is cytochrome P450 3A (CYP 3A)-mediated hydroxylation to form 1-hydroxytriazolam and 4-hydroxytriazolam, which are subsequently conjugated to form glucuronides.

Excretion

Triazolam and its metabolites, principally as conjugated glucuronides which are presumably inactive, are excreted primarily in the urine. Only small amounts of unmetabolized triazolam appear in the urine. The two primary metabolites accounted for 79.9% of urinary excretion. Urinary excretion appeared to be biphasic in its time course.

Specific Populations

Geriatric Patients

In a study of elderly (62 to 83 years old) versus younger subjects (21 to 41 years old) who received triazolam at the same dose levels (0.125 mg and 0.25 mg), the elderly experienced both greater sedation and impairment of psychomotor performance. These effects resulted largely from higher plasma concentrations of triazolam in the elderly.

Drug Interaction Studies

The effect of other drugs on triazolam:

Macrolide Antibiotics

Coadministration of erythromycin increased the maximum plasma concentration of triazolam by 46%, decreased clearance by 53%, and increased half-life by 35%.

Cimetidine

Coadministration of cimetidine increased the maximum plasma concentration of triazolam by 51%, decreased clearance by 55%, and increased half-life by 68%.

Isoniazid

Coadministration of isoniazid increased the maximum plasma concentration of triazolam by 20%, decreased clearance by 42%, and increased half-life by 31%.

Oral Contraceptives

Coadministration of oral contraceptives increased maximum plasma concentration by 6%, decreased clearance by 32%, and increased half-life by 16%.

Grapefruit Juice

Coadministration of grapefruit juice increased the maximum plasma concentration of triazolam by 25%, increased the area under the concentration curve by 48%, and increased half-life by 18%.

Ranitidine

Coadministration of ranitidine increased the maximum plasma concentration of triazolam by 30%, increased the area under the concentration curve by 27%, and increased half-life by 3.3%. Caution is recommended during coadministration with triazolam. Available data from clinical studies of benzodiazepines other than triazolam suggest a possible drug interaction with triazolam for the following: fluvoxamine, diltiazem, and verapamil. Data from in vitro studies of triazolam suggest a possible drug interaction with triazolam for the following: sertraline and paroxetine. Data from in vitro studies of benzodiazepines other than triazolam suggest a possible drug interaction with triazolam for the following: ergotamine, cyclosporine, amiodarone, nicardipine, and nifedipine.

The effect of triazolam on other drugs:

Warfarin

Halcion Tablets 0.5 mg, in two separate studies, did not affect the prothrombin times or plasma warfarin levels in male volunteers administered sodium warfarin orally.

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